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Differential recovery of intestine, bone marrow, and thymus of rats with solid tumors following 5-fluorouracil administration.

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Time relationships for recovery of several host organs from toxic effects of 5-fluorouracil were determined in ACI rats bearing Morris hepatoma 3924A. A single injection of 150 mg/kg body weight 5-fluorouracil (the LD10) resulted in loss of 90% of the tibial bone marrow, 60% of the intestinal mucosa, and 90% of the thymus as measured by total DNA content of the organs. Organ DNA contents following 150 mg/kg of the drug were minimal on day 3 for intestine and on day 5 for marrow and thymus. A return to pretreatment or higher levels of DNA was observed by day 4 for intestine, day 11 for tibial marrow, and day 19 for thymus. Incorporation of 3H-deoxyuridine into host organ DNA after 150 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil was inhibited 36 hrs for intestine, 3 days for thymus, and 5 days for tibial bone marrow. Inhibition of 3H-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA was similar for 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg doses both in tumor and in host organs, but recovery of 3H-deoxyuridine incorporation and DNA content of host organs began later with the higher doses of 5-fluorouracil. Maximal incorporation of 3H-deoxyuridine into DNA was observed on day 4 for intestine, day 8 for marrow, and day 9 for thymus after treatment with 150 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil. Animal lethality following the second of two 150 mg/kg injections of 5-fluorouracil was related to the extent of recovery of intestinal mucosa and bone marrow at the time of the second injection. Survival decreased to 0% for normal rats when the interval between injections was 3-4 days, improved at 5 days and was 100% when the interval was 10-11 days.

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