Chalcogenide clusters of copper and silver from silylated chalcogenide sources.
This review summarizes the rich structural variety of copper and silver chalcogenide clusters with protecting ligand shells of phosphane and/or organic ligands that were generated starting out from silylated chalcogenide sources. This route turned out to be fairly selective and thus allows for the isolation of uniform, polynuclear to nanosized cluster molecules that can consist of only a few or up to hundreds of metal atoms, being bridged by the chalcogen atoms. However, all of these clusters are only kinetically stable with respect to the formation of the binary coinage metal chalcogen phases, but do not collapse into the solid M(2)E materials owing to the protection by bulky ligands on the surface. Upon a more detailed analysis of the development of the structural properties with the cluster size, one recognizes differences for the particular M/E combinations: whereas copper chalcogenide and silver selenide clusters show a clear tendency to approach structural patterns of the Cu(2)E bulk, most obvious for the Cu/Se combination, this is not visible for silver sulfide clusters, even not at the largest species with 490 silver and 302 sulfur atoms. Besides the discussion on the structures of title compounds, the review presents insight into the bonding properties, reactivity, thermal and photophysical properties. The latter can be interpreted in terms of the quantum confinement effect, thus demonstrating the clusters to be understood as intermediates between mononuclear complexes and binary bulk phases.更多