Relationship of H1(0) histone to differentiation and cancer.
The H1(0) histone was first described by Panyim and Chalkley in 1969 as a new electrophoretic band found with histones of non-replicating tissues. Tissues which are active in DNA replication such as ascites tumor cells or thymus cells were reported to lack this band. In this respect the H1(0) histone differs from the bulk of histones which are generally maintained in a constant ratio with respect to each other and to DNA. An inverse relationship between H1(0) histone levels and growth rate was suggested by the decrease in H1(0) histone concentration during regeneration of the pancreas and liver. The synthesis of H1(0) is unusual but not unique in that, unlike the major histone species, it is not restricted to the S phase of the cell cycle. Although there is a general trend for the levels of H1(0) histone to be lower in neoplastic than normal tissues, exceptions have been observed. Compounds such as sodium butyrate and dimethylsulfoxide, which can induce differentiated properties in neoplastic cells, can bring about the accumulation of increased amounts of H1(0) histones. The relative magnitude of these effects exhibits cell-type specificity. There are two H1(0) histone subtypes (a and b) with ratios which differ according to the tissue examined and whose relative importance is not known. The levels of H1(0) histone appear to be more closely related to the degree of differentiation than to the proliferative activity of cells.更多