Interrelationships and metabolic effects of fatty acids in the perfused rat liver at hyperthermic temperatures.
Livers of fasted rats were perfused for 70 min at 37 degrees-43 degrees C in the presence or absence of acetate, octanoate or palmitate. Hepatic biosynthetic capacity was assessed by measuring rates of gluconeogenesis, ureogenesis, ketogenesis and O2 consumption. In the presence of each fatty acid, gluconeogenesis, ureogenesis and oxygen consumption were maintained at 37 degrees and 42 degrees C. At 43 degrees, the rate of glucose formation decreased markedly and rates of ureogenesis and oxygen consumption were distinctly lower. As the temperature was increased from 37 degrees to 43 degrees C without fatty acids, i.e. albumin only, there was a progressive decrease in the rate of gluconeogenesis while the ratio of net C3 utilized to glucose formed, increased successively. The values of this ratio in the presence of palmitate or octanoate at 43 degrees were smaller than those for albumin or acetate, but higher than the figure of 2 for complete conversion of C3 units to glucose. Although fatty acid was added in equimolar amounts of C2 units, total ketone formation was influenced significantly by chain length. Hepatic ketogenesis was similar at 37 degrees with albumin, palmitate, or acetate, but was stimulated significantly by octanoate at 37 degrees and 42 degrees C. At 42 degrees, ketone formation increased in the presence of palmitate. At 43 degrees C, ketogenesis with palmitate or octanoate decreased, while that with acetate or albumin was maintained at the same lower rates. The ratio of 3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate in the perfusate was increased with palmitate at the end of perfusion at 37 degrees and 42 degrees C or octanoate at 42 degrees and 43 degrees C. Thus, long (palmitate)- and medium (octanoate)- but not short (acetate)-chain fatty acids enhance not only beta-oxidation, but influence the redox state of hepatic mitochondria with an increase in the state of reduction of the pyridine nucleotides. Such a shift in the redox state would be operable in the perfused liver even at 43 degrees C and may be responsible for improved conversion of lactate to glucose when medium- or long-chain fatty acids are present at hyperthermic temperatures.更多