Cancer chemoprevention through dietary flavonoids:what's limiting?
Flavonoids are polyphenols that are found in numerous edible plant species. Data obtained from preclinical and clini-cal studies suggest that specific flavonoids are chemo-preventive and cytotoxic against various cancers via a multi-tude of mechanisms. However, the clinical use of flavonoids is limited due to challenges associated with their effective use, including (1) the isolation and purification of flavonoids from their natural resources; (2) demonstration of the effects of flavonoids in reducing the risk of certain cancer, in tandem with the cost and time needed for epidemiologi-cal studies, and (3) numerous pharmacokinetic challenges (e.g., bioavailability, drug–drug interactions, and metabolic instability). Currently, numerous approaches are being used to surmount some of these challenges, thereby increas-ing the likelihood of flavonoids being used as chemo-preventive drugs in the clinic. In this review, we summarize the most important challenges and efforts that are being made to surmount these challenges.更多