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Awakening immunity against cancer:a 2017 primer for clinicians

摘要:

Cancer immunotherapy has finally joined the pillars of cancer treatment—surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hor-monal therapy, and targeted therapy—in improving cancer patient lives. In the last 5 years, the development of immune checkpoint inhibitor and T cell therapy, particularly chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, has been remarkable for the speed, scale, and number of drug approvals. Still, these treatments may also bring unusual adverse effects and clinical outcomes including unprecedented long-term survival. Interrogating the tumor microenviron-ment and identifying better biomarkers hold the key to improving cancer immunotherapies. CAR T-cell therapy has dramatic effect on leukemias and lymphomas with significant cure rates, but has yet to show comparable effect on solid tumors. Cutting-edge technology will improve both processing and clinical effect of such therapies. Asia has the largest, most rapidly aging population and the largest number of cancer patients in the world. Research and develop-ment and clinical trial conduct of cancer immunotherapy in Asia remain nascent, but should be a crucial priority.

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