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2014-2017年成都市成华区诺如病毒感染聚集性疫情流行病学特征分析

Epidemiological characteristics of gastroenteritis clusters caused by norovirus in Chenghua district of Chengdu from 2014 to 2017

摘要:

目的 了解成都市成华区2014-2017年诺如病毒感染聚集性疫情的流行病学特征及影响因素.方法 收集2014-2017年成都市成华区接报并调查处置的40起诺如病毒感染聚集性疫情资料.采用描述性流行病学方法分析疫情的流行病学特征;根据疫情平均涉及病例数(8例)将所有疫情分为2组(≤8例组和>8例组),探讨疫情发生的影响因素.结果 40起诺如疫情共涉及病例数335例,春季(17起)、冬季(12起)为疫情高发季节;涉农地区报告疫情16起、非涉农地区报告24起;托幼机构报告疫情最多(31起),其次为中小学(9起);疫情接报方式主要为学校和托幼机构报告(26起).发病病例中男性189例、女性146例;14岁及以下儿童325例,成年人10例;病例初次呕吐地点在学校者128例,在家者207例.非涉农辖区发生涉及病例数>8例疫情的比例(82.4%,14/17)高于涉农区(17.6%,3/17),差异有统计学意义(x2=6.16,P=0.013);涉及病例数≤8例的疫情中,病例初次呕吐地点在家的比例(72.2%,130/180)高于学校和托幼机构(27.8%,50/180),差异有统计学意义(x2=17.93,P<0.01).结论 春季和冬季为诺如病毒感染聚集性疫情高发季节,涉农辖区要加强疫情防控,学校和托幼机构应做好呕吐物消毒及个人防护.

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abstracts:

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and influencing factors of gastroenteritis clusters caused by norovirus in Chenghua district of Chengdu from 2014 to 2017.Methods Information of 40 clusters of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus in Chenghua district of Chengdu from 2014 to 2017 was collected.The descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the epidemiological characters of the epidemics.The average numbers of cases (8 cases) were used to divided the epidemics into two groups (<8 and >8 cases) in the analysis of influencing factors.Results There were 335 cases of gastroenteritis in the 40 clusters.Spring (17 clusters) and winter (12 clusters) were peak seasons of epidemics.There were 16 clusters in agricultural areas and 24 clusters in nonagricultural areas.The number of clusters reported by kindergartens (31 clusters) was the highest,followed by schools (9 clusters).The numbers of male and female patients were 189 and 146,respectively.Among the cases,325 were children under 14 years old,and 10 were adults.The sites of the first vomiting were school (128 cases) and home (207 cases).The incidence of clusters with >8 cases (82.4%,14/17) in nonagricultural areas was higher than that in agricultural areas (17.6%,3/17).The difference was statistically significant (x2=6.16,P=0.013).Among clusters with <8 cases,the incidence of first vomiting at home (72.2%,130/180) was higher than that in schools and kindergartens (27.8%,50/180).The difference was statistically significant (x2=17.93,P<0.01).Conclusions Spring and winter were peak seasons of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus.The prevention and control measures in agriculture areas should be enhanced.Schools and kindergarten should pay more attention on disinfection for vomit and personal protection.

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