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难治性痉挛破伤风患者临床特点与治疗

Clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with refractory spasm tetanus

摘要:

目的:探讨难治性痉挛破伤风患者的临床特点与治疗。方法:收集2011年1月至2021年4月遵义医科大学附属医院收治的破伤风患者,根据是否存在难治性痉挛分为难治性痉挛组和普通组,分析比较两组患者一般人口学特点、临床特征、治疗及预后等资料,探讨难治性痉挛破伤风患者的治疗及风险预测因素。结果:本研究纳入59例破伤风患者,难治性痉挛组35例(59.32%)、普通组24例(40.68%)。两组患者在性别、年龄、潜伏期、创伤部位比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。难治性痉挛破伤风患者均行机械通气,住院时间明显延长、肺部感染率明显增加( P<0.05)。难治性痉挛患者入科第1天多部位肌紧张(肌痉挛/四肢僵硬、颈项强直、角弓反张)发生率较普通组高( P<0.05),预测难治性痉挛的发生时,患者发病初期(入院24 h内)表现为肌痉挛/四肢僵硬+颈项强直+角弓反张的特异度最高。难治性痉挛患者Ⅳ级所占比例明显高于普通组( P<0.05)。48.57%的难治性痉挛破伤风患者需要3种以上镇静药+肌松剂治疗,镇静药使用时间明显延长( P<0.05)。 结论:难治性痉挛破伤风患者机械通气时间、住院时间明显延长,肺部感染率明显增加,需要长时间大量镇静剂联合肌松剂治疗,发病初期出现多部位肌肉强直的患者出现难治性痉挛发生率较高。

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abstracts:

Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with refractory spasm tetanus.Methods:Tetanus patients admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University from January 2011 to April 2021 were collected and divided into the refractory spasm group and general group according to whether they were refractory spasm. The general demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of the two groups were compared. The treatment and risk predictors of patients with refractory spasm tetanus were explored.Results:Among the 59 tetanus patients, 35 patients (59.32%) were in the refractory spasm group and 24 patients (40.68%) were in the general group. There were no significant differences in sex, age, latency and trauma site between the two groups ( P>0.05). All patients with refractory spasmodic tetanus were treated with mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay was significantly prolonged, and the rate of pulmonary infection was significantly increased ( P<0.05). The incidence of multiple sites muscular rigidity (spasm/limb stiffness, neck stiffness, and angular pedicle tension) in patients with refractory spasmodic on the first day of admission was higher than that in the general group ( P<0.05). The patients' initial symptoms (within 24 h after admission) were muscle spasm/limb stiffness + neck stiffness + angular pedicle inversion, which had the highest specificity for predicting the occurrence of refractory spasm. The proportion of Ablett grade Ⅳ in patients with refractory spasm was higher than that in the general group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). The 48.75% patients with refractory spasm tetanus were treated with more than 3 sedatives combined with muscle relaxants, and the duration of sedative use was significantly prolonged ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The mechanical ventilation time and hospitalization time in tetanus patients with refractory spasm are significantly prolonged, and the incidence of pulmonary infection is significantly increased, which requires the combined application of a large number of sedative and muscle relaxants for a long time, and the incidence of refractory spasm is higher in patients with multi-site muscular rigidity at the early stage of the disease.

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作者: 汪朝慧 [1] 胡杰 [1] 高飞 [1] 付豹 [1] 耿争光 [1] 傅小云 [1]
期刊: 《中华急诊医学杂志》2022年31卷5期 608-612页 ISTICPKUCSCD
栏目名称: 创伤
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0282.2022.05.007
发布时间: 2022-07-31
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