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行体外心肺复苏的院内心搏骤停患者使用主动脉内球囊反搏与住院死亡关系的研究

Relationship of in-hospital mortality and using intra-aortic balloon pump with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with cardiac arrest: a secondary analysis based on literature data

摘要:

目的:评估行体外心肺复苏(ECPR)的院内心搏骤停患者使用主动脉内球囊反搏(IABP)对住院病死率的影响。方法:原始研究连续纳入2004年1月至2013年12月在韩国三星医疗中心进行ECPR的696例院内心搏骤停患者,按照是否使用IABP分为ECPR组和ECPR+IABP组。采用Cox回归和倾向性评分匹配(PSM)评估患者使用IABP与住院病死率之间的独立关联性,使用标准化均数差( SMD)检查PSM程度。绘制两组患者住院期间的Kaplan-Meier生存曲线,采用Log-Rank检验进行比较。将倾向分数作为权重,采用多元回归模型、逆概率加权(IPW)模型进行敏感性分析。比较两组患者的住院病死率、体外膜肺氧合(ECMO)撤机成功率以及神经系统功能预后情况。 结果:最终纳入199例行ECPR的院内心搏骤停患者,其中男性120例,女性79例;年龄(60.0±16.8)岁。31例(15.6%)联合使用IABP,168例(84.4%)单纯行ECPR。总体住院病死率为68.8%(137/199)。使用1:1近邻匹配算法,卡钳值为0.2。选择以下变量生成倾向得分,包括年龄、性别、种族、婚姻状况、保险、入院类型、服务单位、心率、平均动脉压、呼吸频率、脉搏血氧饱和度、白细胞计数。倾向性评分后,24对患者成功匹配,其中男性31例、女性17例,年龄(63.0±12.8)岁。ECPR组和ECPR+IABP组住院病死率分别为72.6%(122/168)、48.4%(15/31)〔风险比( HR)=0.48,95%可信区间(95% CI)为0.28~0.82, P=0.007〕。与单独使用ECPR相比,多元回归模型、调整倾向性评分、PSM和IPW模型分析显示,使用IABP的ECPR患者住院期间死亡风险明显降低( HR分别为0.44、0.50、0.16和0.49,95% CI分别为0.24~0.79、0.28~0.91、0.06~0.39和0.31~0.77,均 P<0.05)。联合应用IABP可提高成人心搏骤停患者的ECMO撤机成功率〔优势比( OR)=8.95,95% CI为2.72~29.38, P<0.001〕,改善神经系统预后( OR=4.06,95% CI为1.33~12.40, P=0.014)。 结论:对于行ECPR的院内心搏骤停患者,联合使用IABP与较低的住院病死率、较高的ECMO撤机成功率以及较好的神经系统预后独立相关。

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abstracts:

Objective:To assess the effect of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) on in-hospital mortality in patients with cardiac arrest undergoing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR).Methods:A retrospective study was performed on 696 patients with intra-hospital cardiac arrest undergoing ECPR from Samsung Medical Center in Korea between January 2004 and December 2013. According to whether IABP was used, the patients were divided into ECPR group and ECPR+IABP group. Cox regression and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to examine the correlation between IABP usage and in-hospital mortality, and standardized mean difference ( SMD) was used to check the degree of PSM. Survival analysis of in-hospital mortality was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and further analyzed by the Log-Rank test. Using the propensity score as weights, multiple regression model and inverse probability weighting (IPW) model were used for sensitivity analysis. In-hospital mortality, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) withdrawal success rate and neurological function prognosis were compared between the two groups. Results:A total of 199 patients with cardiac arrest undergoing ECPR were included, including 120 males and 79 females, and the average age was (60.0±16.8) years. Thirty-one patients (15.6%) were treated with ECPR and IABP, and 168 patients (84.4%) only received ECPR. The total hospitalized mortality was 68.8% (137/199). The 1 : 1 nearest neighbor matching algorithm was performed with the 0.2 caliper value. The following variables were selected to generate propensity scores, including age, gender, race, marital status, insurance, admission type, service unit, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, pulse oxygen saturation, white blood cell count. After the propensity score matching, 24 pairs of patients were successfully matched, with the average age of (63.0±12.8) years, including 31 males and 17 females. The in-hospital mortality was 72.6% (122/168) and 48.4% (15/31) in the ECPR group and the ECPR+IABP group [hazard ratio ( HR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.28-0.82, P = 0.007]. Multiple regression model, adjusted propensity score, PSM and IPW model showed that the in-hospital mortality in the ECPR+IABP group was significantly lower compared with the ECPR group ( HR = 0.44, 0.50, 0.16 and 0.49, respectively, 95% CI were 0.24-0.79, 0.28-0.91, 0.06-0.39 and 0.31-0.77, all P < 0.05). The combined application of IABP could improve the ECMO withdrawal success rate [odds ratio ( OR) = 8.95, 95% CI was 2.72-29.38, P < 0.001] and neurological prognosis ( OR = 4.06, 95% CI was 1.33-12.40, P = 0.014) in adult cardiac arrest patients. Conclusion:In patients with cardiac arrest using ECPR, the combination of IABP was independently associated with lower in-hospital mortality, higher ECMO withdrawal success rate and better neurological prognosis.

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