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儿童功能性语音障碍特点及错误辅音分析

Analysis of functional speech sound disorder and related erroneous consonants in children

摘要:

目的:分析儿童功能性语音障碍特点及其错误辅音特征,为临床评估及合理干预提供依据。方法:采用回顾性调查研究,以2007年1月至2018年12月于首都儿科研究所附属儿童医院保健科语言-言语门诊诊断的功能性语音障碍患儿1 562例为研究对象,采用普通话语音测试表以图片命名法进行单词水平语音测查。采用χ2检验分析不同发音部位辅音错误的性别分布特征,χ 2趋势检验分析不同年龄、不同时期辅音错误发生率的变化趋势。 结果:共确诊功能性语音障碍患儿1 562例,其中男1 171例、女391例,年龄4~17岁;功能性语音障碍患儿各发音部位辅音错误发生率分别为唇音43.0%(672/1 562)、舌面音47.0%(734/1 562)、舌根音63.7%(995/1 562)、舌尖前音77.7%(1 213/1 562)、舌尖中音78.9%(1 233/1 562)、舌尖后音81.6%(1 274/1 562)。男童在唇音、舌面音、舌尖前音、舌尖后音4个部位的错误发生率均高于女童[44.7%(523/1 171)比38.1%(149/391)、49.1%(575/1 171)比40.7%(159/391)、80.1%(938/1 171)比70.3%(275/391)、82.8%(970/1 171)比77.7%(304/391),χ2 =5.138、8.379、16.126、5.042, P均<0.05];随年龄增长,唇音、舌面音、舌根音、舌尖前音、舌尖中音、舌尖后音的错误发生率均降低(χ2 =27.023、13.230、20.579、29.718、26.390、17.887, P均<0.01);随年份变化,唇音、舌尖前音、舌尖中音的错误发生率均升高(χ2 =9.030、51.894、18.507, P均<0.01)。 结论:功能性语音障碍中舌尖后音错误发生率最高,且部分不能随年龄增长完全自愈,应尽早开展舌尖后音的语音训练。近年来唇音、舌尖前音、舌尖中音的错误发生率有上升趋势,应引起关注并及早干预。

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abstracts:

Objective:To investigate the features and trends of functional speech sound disorder and related erroneous consonants in children, so as to provide evidence for clinical evaluation and rational intervention.Methods:Clinical data of 1 562 children diagnosed with functional speech sound disorder in the language-speech clinic of the Department of Child Health Care, Children′s Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2007 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. By using the mandarin phonetic test table, the picture-naming method was adopted to test the word-level pronunciation. The Chi-square test was conducted to analyze the incidence of consonant errors in different age groups, gender and different places of articulation. The trend in incidence of the consonant errors in different age groups and during the last 12 years were analyzed by chi-square trend test. Results:A total of 1 562 cases were diagnosed with functional speech sound disorder, including 1 171 males and 391 females, the age was 4-17 years. The incidence of consonant errors in different places of articulation was 43.0% (672/1 562) for labial, 47.0% (734/1 562) for lingua-palatal, 63.7% (995/1 562) for velar, 77.7% (1 213/1 562) for linguo-alveolar, 78.9% (1 233/1 562) for apico-dental and 81.6% (1 274/1 562) for palatal. The incidence of consonant errors in males on labial, lingua-palatal, linguo-alveolar and palatal was higher than that in females (44.7% (523/1 171) vs. 38.1% (149/391), 49.1% (575/1 171) vs.40.7% (159/391), 80.1% (938/1 171) vs.70.3% (275/391), 82.8% (970/1 171) vs.77.7% (304/391), χ2 =5.138, 8.379, 16.126 and 5.042,all P<0.05). The incidence of consonant errors on labial, lingua-palatal, velar, linguo-alveolar, apico-dental and palatal decreased with age (χ2 =27.023, 13.230, 20.579, 29.718, 26.390, and 17.887, all P<0.01). The incidence of consonant errors on labial, linguo-alveolar, apico-dental increased with years (χ2 =9.030, 51.894 and 18.507, all P<0.01). Conclusions:The incidence of palatal errors is the highest in children with functional speech sound disorder. As part of the palatal errors could not be completely self-healing with growing, the phonological therapy for palatal errors should be carried out as early as possible. The incidence of consonant errors on labial, linguo-alveolar, and apico-dental presents an upward tendency with years, more attention should be paid to the factors related to the acquisition of these consonants.

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作者: 王建红 [1] 许琪 [1] 王晓燕 [1] 王文鹏 [2] 李娜 [1] 金春华 [1] 张丽丽 [1] 王曦 [1] 李晓萌 [1] 石鑫淼 [1] 王琳 [1]
期刊: 《中华儿科杂志》2020年58卷12期 995-1000页 MEDLINEISTICPKUCSCD
栏目名称: 论著
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112140-20200624-00662
发布时间: 2021-01-11
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