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胫骨平台双髁骨折中胫骨结节骨折的手术策略选择

The options of surgical strategyin treatment for tibial tubercle fracture associated with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture

摘要:

目的:探讨胫骨平台双髁骨折中胫骨结节骨折的手术策略。方法:回顾性2014年10月至2018年5月治疗并获得随访的35例胫骨平台双髁骨折合并胫骨结节骨折患者资料,男26例,女9例;年龄21~68岁,平均37.6岁;胫骨平台骨折根据Schatzker分型,Ⅴ型16例、Ⅵ型19例。根据胫骨平台双髁骨折中胫骨结节骨折块及胫骨近端后侧皮质的完整性将35例骨折分为四种类型:两者均完整为A型;胫骨结节骨折块完整,胫骨近端后侧皮质粉碎为B型;胫骨结节骨折块粉碎,胫骨近端后侧皮质完整为C型;两者均粉碎为D型。遵循此分类制定手术入路及固定方式,其中22例胫骨平台双髁骨折合并A、B型胫骨结节骨折采用前外侧联合内侧入路,13例合并C、D型胫骨结节骨折者采用前正中联合内侧入路。4例A型骨折采用拉力螺钉固定。18例B型骨折采用1/4管状钢板固定。7例C及6例D型骨折均采取1/4管状钢板结合螺钉固定。结果:35例患者术后均获随访,随访时间12~24个月,平均16.8个月。所有胫骨平台骨折均达骨性愈合,愈合时间3~6个月,平均4.7个月。除1例外,其余胫骨结节骨折块均未见二期复位丢失。术后Rasmussen放射学评分为10~18分,平均14.1分;其中优11例,良19例,可5例,优良率85.7%(30/35)。HSS膝关节功能评分为64~98分,平均86.8分;其中优22例,良10例,可3例,优良率91.4%(32/35)。术后2周发生脂肪液化2例,术后1周发生浅表伤口感染1例、内固定松动1例、膝关节创伤性关节炎1例。结论:胫骨平台双髁骨折合并胫骨结节骨折是一种特殊损伤类型,需根据胫骨结节骨块的粉碎程度及胫骨近端后侧皮质的完整性制定手术策略。对于粉碎的胫骨结节骨折,前正中入路显露最佳,根据骨折块情况可以采用1/4管状钢板和(或)拉力螺钉固定。

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abstracts:

Objective:To discuss how to make the surgical strategy for tibial tubercle fracture associated with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture.Methods:Data of thirty-five patients of tibial tubercle fractures associated with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures who were treated from October 2014 to May 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 26 males and 9 females with an average age of 37.6 years (range, 21-68 years). According to Schatzker classification in tibial plateau fracture, 16 cases were type V and 19 cases were type VI. According to the integrity of tibial tubercle fracture and cortical bone of the proximal tibia in bicondylar tibial plateau fracture, they were divided into four types: type A, tibial tubercle fracture fragment and cortical bone of the proximal tibia are both complete; type B, tibial tubercle fracture fragment is complete but cortical bone of the proximal tibia is comminuted; type C, tibial tubercle fracture fragment is comminuted but cortical bone of the proximal tibia is complete; type D, both of them are comminuted. The surgical approaches and fixation methods of all the tibial tubercle fractures were according to the four different types. There were 22 cases with type A and B that were treated via an anterolateral and a medial incision, 13 cases with type C and D were treated via an anterior midline and a medial incision. There were 4 cases belonging to type A fixed with lag screws singly, 18 cases with type B fixed with 1/4 tubular plates, 7 cases with type C and 6 cases with type D fixed by 1/4 tubular plates combined with lag screws.Results:Thirty-five patients were followed up for 16.8 months (range, 12-24 months). All fractures healed with an average time of 4.7 months (range, 3-6 months). Loss of reduction didn’t occur in 34 cases except one. According to Rasmussen radiographic evaluation, the average score was 14.1 (range, 10-18) and clinical outcomes were rated with excellent in 11 cases, good in 19, fair in 5. The excellent and good rate was 85.7% (30/35) . The mean Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores of all cases were 86.8 (range, 64-98) and the functional scores were excellent in 22 cases, good in 10 cases and fair in 3 cases with the excellent and good rate of 91.4% (32/35) . Surgical complications included fat liquefaction in 2 cases, superficial wound infection in 1, loosening of implant in 1and traumatic arthritis in 1.Conclusion:This kind of tibial tubercle fracture associated with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture is rare and special. Therefore, the preoperative plan should be made by considering the morphological features of the tibial tubercle fragments and the cortical bone of the proximal tibia. The middle longitude approach is the best way to expose tibial tubercle fragments which should be fixed with 1/4 tubularplate and/or lag screws.

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期刊: 《中华骨科杂志》2020年40卷18期 1275-1281页 ISTICPKUCSCDCA
栏目名称: 临床论著
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121113-20200206-00048
发布时间: 2020-09-28
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