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老年患者急性肺血栓栓塞症临床及预后分析

Clinical and prognostic analysis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism in the elderly

摘要:

目的:探索老年患者急性肺栓塞的临床特点及预后影响因素。方法:回顾性分析2012年1月1日 至2019年2月1日 间于北京协和医院住院的急性肺栓塞患者,按年龄划分老年组(≥60岁)与非老年组(<60岁),比较两组患者临床症状、合并症、实验室指标、肺栓塞严重指数(PESI)及病死率。比较不同年龄层老年患者的病死率。采用Cox回归分析老年患者肺栓塞7及30 d死亡的预后影响因素。结果:共503例急性肺栓塞患者纳入研究,其中老年组279例,非老年组224例。老年组出现心脏骤停比例更高,胸痛、咯血发生率较低,合并糖尿病、高血压、冠心病等慢性病比例更高,合并自身免疫性疾病较少。预后方面,老年组PESI评分及7、30 d病死率均高于非老年组。随年龄增大,老年患者病死率呈升高趋势。Cox单因素回归分析显示感染、低白蛋白血症、低钙血症、cTnI升高、NT-proBNP升高及PESI等级与30 d内死亡相关。多因素Cox回归分析发现PESI等级、血钙浓度降低是老年患者肺栓塞7 d死亡的预后影响因素。PESI等级、血钙浓度降低及感染是30 d死亡的预后影响因素。结论:老年肺栓塞患者病死率高于非老年患者,且随年龄增大,病死率逐渐增高。PESI等级、血钙降低及感染是老年患者肺栓塞30 d内死亡的预后影响因素。

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abstracts:

Objective:To analyse the clinical characteristics and to explore the prognostic factors of acute pulmonary thromboembolism in the elderly.Methods:The medical records of inpatients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism discharged from Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1, 2012, to February 1, 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. The eligible patients were divided into elderly group (≥ 60 years old) and non-elderly group (<60 years old). The clinical symptoms, complications, laboratory results, pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) and mortality were compared between the two groups. Mortality was further compared among elderly patients of different age groups. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of 7-day and 30-day death in elderly patients with pulmonary embolism.Results:A total of 503 patients with acute pulmonary embolism were included, including 279 cases in the elderly group and 224 cases in the non-elderly group. The incidence of cardiac arrest was higher in the elderly group compared with non-elderly group, while the incidence of chest pain and hemoptysis was less common in the elderly group. The proportions of comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease were higher in the elderly group while the proportion of autoimmune diseases was higher in the non-elderly group. In terms of prognosis, the PESI score and 7-day and 30-day mortality in the elderly group were higher than those in the non-elderly group. The mortality of elderly patients increased with age. Cox univariate regression analysis showed that infection, hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, elevated cardiac troponin(cTnI), elevated N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic pepride(NT-proBNP) and PESI grade were associated with 30-day death. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that PESI grade and decreased serum calcium concentration were independent risk factors for 7-day death of pulmonary embolism in elderly patients. PESI grade, decreased serum calcium concentration and infection were independent risk factors for 30-day death.Conclusions:The mortality of elderly patients with pulmonary embolism was higher than that of non-elderly patients, and the mortality increased gradually with age. PESI grade, decreased serum calcium concentration and infection were independent risk factors for 30-day death of pulmonary embolism in elderly patients.

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作者: 张婷 [1] 薛培君 [2] 李宜瑶 [2] 彭敏 [1] 孙雪峰 [1] 施举红 [1]
期刊: 《中华结核和呼吸杂志》2022年45卷6期 539-545页 MEDLINEISTICPKUCSCD
栏目名称: 论著
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112147-20211126-00839
发布时间: 2022-07-31
基金项目:
中国医学科学院医学与健康科技创新工程项目 中国医学科学院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费临床与转化医学研究基金 CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Science CAMS Central Public-Interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund
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