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子宫动脉化疗栓塞术治疗胎盘植入合并产后出血的安全性和临床疗效

Clinical efficacy and safety of uterine artery chemoembolization in abnormal placental implantation complicated with postpartum hemorrhage

摘要:

目的 探讨子宫动脉化疗栓塞术治疗胎盘植入合并产后出血患者的安全性和临床疗效.方法 选择2006年12月至2009年9月于中山大学附属第二医院妇产科住院的23例胎盘植入合并产后出血患者,其中阴道持续少量出血9例,急性大出血14例,出血时间平均为(8±6)d,出血量平均为(980±660)ml,所有患者均经彩色多普勒超声(彩超)检杏并诊断为胎盘植入.对23例患者先行髂内动脉造影,确认子宫动脉后再将导管超选择送入子宫动脉远端,经导管以甲氨蝶呤(用量根据植入胎盘的体积和患者体表面积确定,即25~50 mg/m~2体表面积)和明胶海绵颗粒行双侧子宫动脉化疗栓塞(UACE)术.UACE术后48 h内复查彩超,对胎盘与子宫分界模糊、存在异常血流(范围>1 cm×1 cm)的患者采用经腹彩超引导下,经阴道在胎盘植入部位子宫体多点注射甲氨蝶呤.上述介入治疗后随访3~26个月(平均12个月),期间观察患者阴道出血、胎盘组织排出、血人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)水平、子宫恢复情况、月经周期变化、并发症或副反应等情况.结果 (1)疗效:23例患者共行UACE术24次,术后止血时间平均为(3.5±1.3)min.UACE术后复查彩超显示病变处血流信号减少,23例患者中,5例植入的胎盘组织于介入治疗后完全自行排出,16例胎盘组织未排出而行清宫术,清宫术中出血量平均为(40±28)ml,2例行子宫次全切除术.21例(21/23,91%)保留了子宫.(2)随访:随访时间平均12个月.所有患者血hCG于胎盘完全排出后1~13 d恢复正常,保留子宫的21例患者2~3个月恢复正常月经周期,3个月后复查彩超示子宫基本恢复正常大小.随访期间主要副反应是盆腔疼痛、发热等栓塞后综合征,无其他并发症.结论 UACE术及配合彩超引导下的局部注入甲氨蝶呤治疗胎盘植入合并产后出血具有安全、微创、止血迅速、可保留子宫等优点,有较高的临床应用价值.彩超检查有助于评价胎盘植入的UACE术前后的血流变化.

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abstracts:

Objective To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of uterime artery chemoembolization in postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) caused by abnormal placental implantation.Methods Between December 2006 and September 2009, there were 23 cases of abnormal placental implantation with PPH in our hospital, among which 9 presented with continuous small amount of vaginal bleeding and 14 with acute excessive bleeding.The average bleeding time was (8±6) d and the mean blood loss was (980±660) ml.Abnormal placental implantation was confirmed by color Doppler ultrasound (CD-US) in all cases, the internal lilac artery angiography was performed to identify the uterine artery and bilateral uterine artery chemoembolization (UACE) with methotrexate (MTX) and gelfoam particles to the distal end of uterine artery was conducted after.CD-US rechecked all patients within 48 h after UACE and those patients with blurred margins between placenta and uterus and abnormal blood flow (> 1 cm×1 cm) received ultrasonic-guided per vagina MTX multipoint injections.All cases were followed up for 3-26 months (average 12 months) to observe vaginal bleeding, placenta tissue discharge, serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), uterine involution, menses, and side-effects or complications.Results (1) Curative effect: These 23 cases underwent 24 procedures of UACE successfully and vaginal bleeding ceased at an average of (3.5±1.3) min after UACE.Reduced blood flow in the placental implantation area was detected under CD-US after UACE.Among the 23 patients, wterine curettage was required in 16 cases due to retained placenta tissues with the mean blood loss of (40 ± 28) ml during the operation, 2 underwent subtotal hysterectomy and confirmed to be placenta percreta by pathology examination, and placenta tissues were spontaneously discharged completely in 5 cases.Totally, 91% of the patients (21/23) reserved their uterus.(2) Follow-up: the serum hCG reduced to normal within 1-13 d after the placenta tissue were evacuated.Regular menstruation returned within 2-3 months in those patients who reserved uterus and normal size uterus was found under sonography at 3 months.No severe complication was reported except for some post embolization syndrome, such as pelvic pain or fever.Conclusions UACE, combined with ultrasonic-guided transvaginal MTX injection, is a safe, minimal invasive and quick hemostatic procedure in treatment of abnormal placental implantation with PPH, and allows the preservation of uterus possible.CD-US is helpful in evaluation of the blood flow changes before and after UACE in abnormal placental implantation patients.

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作者: 陈耀庭 [1] 许林锋 [1] 孙宏亮 [1] 李慧卿 [1] 胡仁美 [1] 谭绮尹 [1]
作者单位: 中山大学附属第二医院介入放射科,广州,510120 [1]
期刊: 《中华妇产科杂志》2010年45卷4期 273-277页 MEDLINEISTICPKUCSCDCA
分类号: R71
栏目名称: 临床研究
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0529-567x.2010.04.009
发布时间: 2010-06-29
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